A new spectroscopic method for the simultaneous determination of several
metals in an alloy (Dutch: legering) is tested with three different reference samples. For
each metal, four replicate measurements are taken. The results are
gathered in the table. Note that a given s.d. is always the s.d. of individual measurements and not the s.d. of the mean (unless it is made clear that the given s.d. is the s.d. of the mean of course...).
|   || Ni || Pb || Zn |
| Mean || 0.0530 || 0.103 || 32.48 |
| s.d. || 0.0008 || 0.012 || 0.10 |
| True || 0.0517 || 0.106 || 32.20 |
Is there a systematic error in the Ni analysis?